Saturday, July 25, 2009
Rizal, the Romantic
The loves of Rizal
“When beauty and ugliness are placed side by side, they form a contrast that makes the former more vivid; the latter more shameful”.
There is a suspicion that the plot of Noli and Fili were lifted from the story plot of “The Count of Monte Cristo”. Both were about revenge and the character of Simoun/Ibarra was somewhat similar to the protagonist of the said novel of Alexander Dumas.
There were at least nine women linked with Rizal namely:
1. Segunda Katigbak
2. Leonor Valenzuela
3. Leonor Rivera
4. Consuelo Ortiga
5. O Sei San
6. Gertrude Beckett
7. Nellie Bousted
8. Suzanne Jacoby
9. Josephine Bracken
Segunda Katigbak and Leonor Valenzuela
Segunda Katigbak was considered as the puppy love of Rizal:
“she was rather short with eyes that were ardent and eloquent at times languid at others, rosy cheeked, with an enchanting provocative smile that revealed beautiful teeth…”. She was however engaged to someone else.
Leonor Valenzuela was the opposite of Segunda Katigbak. Rizal even went to the length of devising an invisible ink to have his love letters written.
She was the longest relationship Rizal had, 11 years. Unfortunately, the mother of Leonor Rivera disapproved with the relationship and went to the extent of hiding Rizal’s letter from her daughter.
Believing that Rizal already had forgotten about her, consented to marry someone else (Henry Kipping, an English).
Rizal broke off his blossoming relationship with Consuelo in the belief that Leonor Rivera was still loyal to him. This was in Spain, Madrid.
O Sei San (Seiko Usui)
A Japanese samurai’s daughter.
An Englishwoman, a daughter of his landlord in London.
Antonio Luna uttered a disparaging comment about Nellie Bousted and Rizal challenged Luna to a duel. Luna apologized thus averting a potential tragedy for the Filipino compatriots.
The relationship was doomed to fail because of Rizal’s refusal to convert to protestant faith and his lack of prospect of a paid physician in Europe.
In Brussels, a landlord’s niece caught the affection/attention of Rizal. Another classic case of passing fancy.
Daughter of a blind patient, Rizal met the mother of his future child in his exile in Dapitan. Rizal tried to marry her but was held hostage by the church subject to a retraction of all writings of Rizal.
She became a common law wife instead. A live in partner, a union without the sanction of the Catholic Church.
Rizal, Man of Honor and a Gentleman
- Antonio Luna made some nasty comment about the current paramour of Rizal and was immediately challenged to a duel.
- Wenceslao R. Retano charged that the family of Rizal didn’t paid their rents for lands in Calamba and was also challenged to a duel.
- A French businessman in Dapitan charged that Rizal sold him logs of poor quality. This again led to another challenge/duel.
- MH del Pilar and Rizal once contested the leadership of La Solaridad in Spain and Rizal’s refusal to be a cause of disunity led to united stance of compatriots in Europe.
- Rizal even refused to escape his exile in Dapitan since he gave his word of honor to Governor Ramon Blanco.
Points to be made:
1. Courtship in Rizal’s time as opposed to the prevailing courtship practice nowadays.
2. How do the present reporters court their present GF’s.
3. Love of motherland.
4. Rizal’s refusal to be a cause of disunity.
5. Palabra de honor as oppose to GMA.
6. Socrates, the first martyr of knowledge.
Monday, June 22, 2009
- In 1834, Spain was following the trend of globalization; it opened Manila and the rest of Philippines in world commerce.
- The move brought prosperity and created a middle class among the Filipinos, specifically, the Chinese Mestizos.
- They started to send their sons to be educated locally as well as abroad.
- Education brought more influence and agitation for a betterment of treatment in the colony.
- Educated Filipinos were now asking for social and political equality.
- These educated Filipinos became the first batch of propagator of reform in the Philippines.
The Secularization Movement
- Since 1565, religious orders (e.g. Augustinians, Recollects, Dominicans, and Franciscans) led the conversion of the Philippine colony to Catholicism through the parishes.
- Now, this is a violation of a directive from the Vatican that “administration of the parishes should be under the secular priests”.
- There were only few priests in the colony then hence the violation of the Vatican provision.
- But by the late 18th century, there were already a considerable number of secular priests but unfortunately, the religious orders wouldn’t want to give up their important role (i.e. by relinquishing their parishes to the seculars).
- This scenario created a conflict between the foreign priests and the local priests, such became a racial issue.
- Thus the Secularization Movement became a national and a racial issue among the many Spanish colonies.
The Cavite Mutiny and the Execution of Gomburza
- The Spanish Republic ended in 1870 and the monarchy was again restored. As a result the political landscape in the Philippines again changed from liberal to autocratic.
- On January 20, 1872, about 200 Filipino soldiers and workers in the Cavite arsenal revolted over tax exemptions.
- The Governor General dispatched a punitive force leading to a violent resolution.
- The revolt became an excuse for the Governor General to persecute the leaders of the secularization movement and other liberal oriented Filipinos.
- A simple rebellion became a grand conspiracy of the indios to topple down the Spanish colonizers.
- Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, and Jacinto Zamora were sentenced to die by the garrote.
- On February 17, 1872, the three priests were executed in Bagumbayan (Luneta).
- Jose Rizal witnessed the execution.
- Among the rising middle class, the globalization of liberalism and the execution of the “gomburza” started the peaceful campaign for reforms. The propagandists were simply reformers as they did not have the objective and intention of achieving social changes through an armed struggle or revolution.
- Their principal objective was the assimilation of the colony as a regular province of Spain, because they believe that through integration, equality between the natives and the Spaniards would surely be attained.
- The reformers worked for the secularization of the parishes, the restoration of the Filipino representative in Spanish Cortes and the fundamental freedoms of speech, of the press, assembly and religion.
The Liga Filipina
- Rizal founded the Liga Filipina with the aim of forming a civic organization composed of patriotic Filipinos in pursuit of new approaches in achieving reforms in the Philippines.
- The objectives were: the unification of the country into one compact and homogenous body, mutual protection in every want and necessity, defense against all forms of violence and injustices, encouragement of education, agriculture and commerce, and the study and application of reforms.
- The liga however was short-lived, three days after its founding; Rizal was arrested and deported in Dapitan.
Failure of the Reform Movement
- The propagandists were afflicted by a perennial problem, inadequacy of finance.
- The La Solidaridad ceased its publication because of it, homesickness and difference of opinions leading to internal conflicts compelled Del Pilar and Jaena to change their political platform from assimilation to separation or revolution.
- The propaganda movement did not achieve its basic aims, but it succeeded in influencing profound political awakenings.
- When Bonifacio, Jacinto and Aguinaldo saw the futility of achieving reforms through peaceful means, they realized that the last option was in the guise of revolt.
- Ironically, on July 7, 1892, the day that Rizal was arrested and deported was also the day that Katipunan was founded.
The Philippine Revolution of 1896
- Realizing the futility of reforms, on August 22, 1896, Bonifacio summoned all the leaders (of Katipunan) in Balintawak. Around 500 katipuneros tore their cedulas starting the first phase of the Philippine Revolotuion.
- Rizal was charge with being the “soul of the revolution” and executed him on December 30, 1896.
- On June 12, General Emilio Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines from Spain.
Thursday, June 18, 2009
Power of Eminent Domain - is also known as the power of expropriation, it is described as the highest and the most exact idea of property remaining in the government that may be required for some public purpose through a method in the nature of a compulsary sale to the state.
Power of Taxation - is the sovereign power of the state to impose burdens and charges upon persons, property and property rights to enable the government to operate and perform its appropriate functions.
Tuesday, June 16, 2009
Rizal’s Life and Works
I. Course Overview
Course Code: JOSERIZ
Course Title: Rizal’s Life and Works
Type of Course: General
Faculty: Dr. Ronan S. Estoque
II. Course Description
This is a critical study of the life, works, and writings of Rizal as they relate to the socio-political situation of the Philippines during his time and its implication to our present time. It focuses on the analysis of his two novels “Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibusterismo” and some selected poem and essays.
III. Course Objectives
In line with the DLS-CSB’s mission to build a community of citizens fostering a sense of nationhood and living Filipino ideals, this course aims to foster the development of national consciousness among the youth.
Students are expected to demonstrate critical thinking through analysis by writing a reaction paper and position paper on the impact of the two novels on the socio-political situation of the Philippines during Rizal’s time and to the present situation.
1. Analyze the impact of Rizal’s life in relation to his contribution on the socio-political situation of the Philippines at the present time.
2. Interpret the selected poem, essays and novels and its impact to socio-political situation during the past and present time.
3. Justify Rizal’s heroism and his declaration as the national hero of the Philippines.
IV. Course Content
A. Background on the socio-political situation of the Philippines during Rizal’s times.
B. Family Background of Rizal.
C. Educational background of Rizal.
D. Struggles, trial and execution of Rizal.
E. Poems and essays on nationalism.
F. Poems on Education.
G. Poems and Essays on Filipino Culture.
H. Novels “Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibusterismo”.
I. Republic Act No. 1425.
J. Comments/Issues on the Heroism of Rizal.
K. Criteria in the making of Rizal as a national hero.
V. Course Requirements and Grading System
A. Regular Attendance (10%). All students of this subject are required to attend all the sessions scheduled for the term. STUDENTS WHO EXCEEDS THE ALLOWABLE ABSENCES WILL FAIL THE COURSE.
B. Class participation/recitation (10%).
C. Quizzes (25%).
D. Group Project (25%).
E. Major Examinations (30%).
F. Computation of Final Grade
Midterm Grade + Prefinal Grade / 2
1. Jose Rizal, A Hero’s Life (2005) by Claudio V. Tabotabo and Roman D. Leaño, Jr.
2. Jose Rizal, The First Filipino (2004) by Maguigad et, al.
3. Rizal Without the Overcoat (1990) by Ambeth Ocampo.
4. Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National Hero 2nd Edition (1998) by Gregorio Zaide and Sonia M. Zaide.
by Dr. Ronan S. Estoque, June, 2009